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Full text of "Flora Indica Vol-I"

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"          FLORA  INDICA.
diate vicinity, averaging 86 inches annually at Chittagong; on
the higher ranges in the interior it is probably much more
considerable. The 'low hills of lipperu, immediately to the
south of the Surma valley, are said to be covered to a great
extent with dry bamboo jungle, extending uninterruptedly for
miles and being almost uninhabited. The southern, slopes
may be expected to be more humid, as they are fully exposed
to the rainy wind.
The vegetation of Chittagong is very similar to that of Sil-
het. Thd higher hills are covered with dense but often dry
forest, and the lower ones with brushwood. Oaks (which grow
/down to the level of the sea), two species of nutmeg, Dillenia
penlagyna, Butea, Pongamia, Mesua, Gordonia, Engelhardtia,
Hensloma, and several Dipterocarpi, are conspicuous in the
forests. Of the latter, Dipterocarpus turbinatus, which yields
the wrell known and valuable Gurjun, or wood oil, is extremely
abundant, towering over the other forest-trees. Cycas is com-
mon. On the drier hills we have the same shrubs which have
already been enumerated 'as growing in similar situations in
Silhet, with Liwstoma in very great abundance, Pleroyjer-
mum, Dalhousiea, Bradlda, Melastoma, Litsaa, Tetrunthera,
Scepa, Calamus fascicularis, WikstrcemiQj Ixoru, Adelia, Mo-
acurra, Casalpinia, Muss&nday Guettarcta, Ge/onium, Jaami-
numy Memecylon, and Congea; and of small trees, JSgh Mar-
meloSf Amoora, Gaurea, Figs, and Micromelon, In damp
Woods are many Calami, two WaHwhia, three Arec&y various
Lagerstrcemite, Meliacea, many Leguminosa, Terebinthacea,
Verbenacea, and Magnoliacea, all growing in great luxtiriance,
and most of theni forming gigantic forest-trees.
In consequence of the great influx of fresh water which is
discharged into the Bay of Bengal by the Megna and Penny
rivers, the eastern part of that sea remains almost fresh for a
very considerable distance from the shore. Even at the mouth
of the Chittagong river the water is only brackish, and the
maritime tropical vegetation of mangroves, and such plants,
does not commence till we advance as far south as Ramri